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03 March 2008

Sample Medical Translation - Indonesian to English

Indonesian Source Text

LIMBAH LAYANAN KESEHATAN
Semua hasil buangan yg berasal dari:
- instalasi kesehatan
- fasilitas penelitian
- laboratorium
- perawatan keseahatan di rumah (dialisis, penyuntikan di rumah, dll)
75-90% limbah umum, 10-25% limbah medis
Volume limbah tergantung pada jenis layanan kesehatan dan tingkat pengelolaannya
Tidak adanya pemilahan menyebabkan semua limbah menjadi limbah medis

Limbah infeksius/sangat infeksius
Limbah yg diduga mengandung mikroorganisme/ patogen (bakteri, virus, parasit dan jamur):
- kultur dan stok agen infeksius di laboratorium
- limbah hasil operasi dan otopsi pasien penyakit menular
- limbah pasien dari bangsal isolasi
- limbah pasien haemodialisis
- hewan terinfeksi di laboratorium
- alat/bahan yg terkontaminasi orang/hewan sakit

Limbah genotoksik
Bersifat mutagenik, teratogenik atau karsinogenik
Meliputi obat-obatan sitostatik: azatioprin, klorambusil, siklosporin, siklofosfamid, melfalan, semustin, tamoksifen dll
Muntahan, urin atau tinja pasien yg diobati dengan genotoksik

Bahaya akibat limbah genotoksik
Agen pengalkilasi: bersifat vesicant dan iritant
Agen penginterkalasi: bersifat vesicant dan iritant
Agen alkaloida: bersifat vesicant
Epipodofilotoksin: bersifat iritant
Pajanan melalui kontak langsung dengan mata dan kulit, maupun melalui pernafasan

English Translation

HEALTH CARE WASTE
All waste products that come from:
- health installations
- research facilities
- laboratories
- medical treatment at home (dialysis, injection at home, etc.)
75-90% is general waste, 10-25% is medical waste
Waste volume depends on type of health care and its management level
Lack of sorting makes all types of waste be considered as medical waste

Infectious/Highly Infectious Waste
Waste that is suspected of containing pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi):
- culture and preparation of infectious laboratory agents
- surgery and autopsy waste of patients with contagious disease
- waste of patients in isolation wards
- waste of haemodialytic patients
- infected laboratory animals
- equipment/materials contaminated by sick people/animals

Genotoxic waste
Mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic
Includes cytostatic drugs: azathioprine, chlorambucil, cyclosporine, cyclophosphamide, melphalan, semustine, tamoxifen, etc.
Vomit, urine, or faeces of patients taking genotoxic drugs

Hazards of genotoxic waste
Alkylating agents: vesicant and irritant
Intercalating agents: vesicant and irritant
Alkaloidal agents: vesicant
Epipodophyllotoxin: irritant
Exposure is either through direct contact with eye and skin or respiration

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