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14 January 2008

Sample Financial Translation - English to Indonesian

English Source Text
The most common technique for valuing risky cash flows is the Free Cash Flow (FCF) method. In that method, interest tax shields are excluded from the FCFs and the tax deductibility of interest is treated as a decrease in the cost of capital using the after-tax weighted average cost of capital (WACC). Because the WACC is affected by changes in capital structure, the FCF method poses several implementation problems in highly leveraged transactions, restructurings, project financings, and other instances in which capital structure changes over time. In these situations, the capital structure has to be estimated and those estimates have to be used to compute the appropriate WACC in each period. Under these circumstances, the FCF method can be used to correctly value the cash flows, but it is not straightforward.

This paper presents an alternative method for valuing risky cash flows. I call this method the Capital Cash Flow (CCF) method, because the cash flows include all of the cash available to capital providers, including the interest tax shields. In a capital structure with only ordinary debt and common equity, CCFs equal the flows available to equity - NI plus depreciation less capital expenditure and the increase in working capital - plus the interest paid to debtholders. The interest tax shields decrease taxable income, decrease taxes and, thereby, increase after-tax cash flows. In other words, CCFs equal FCFs plus the interest tax shields. Because the interest tax shields are included in the cash flows, the appropriate discount rate is before-tax and corresponds to the riskiness of the assets.

Although the FCF and CCF methods treat interest tax shields differently, the two methods are algebraically equivalent. In other words, the CCF method is a different way of valuing cash flows using the same assumptions and approach as the FCF method. The advantage of the CCF method is its simplicity. Whenever debt is forecasted in levels, instead of as a percent of total enterprise value, the CCF method is much easier to use, because the interest tax shields are easy to calculate and easy to include in the cash flows. The CCF method retains its simplicity when the forecasted debt levels and the implicit debt-to-value ratios change throughout the forecast period. Also, the expected asset return depends on the riskiness of the asset and, therefore,does not change when capital structure changes. As a result, the discount rate for the CCFs does not have to be re-estimated every period. In contrast, when using the FCF method, the after-tax WACC has to be re-estimated every period. Because the WACC depends on value weights, the value of the firm has to be estimated simultaneously. The CCF method avoids this complexity so that it is especially useful in valuing highly levered firms whose debt is usually forecasted in levels and whose capital structure changes substantially over time.

Indonesian Target Text
Teknik yang paling sering digunakan untuk menilai aliran kas yang berisiko adalah metode Aliran Kas Bebas (FCF). Dengan metode ini, pelindung pajak bunga dikeluarkan dari FCF dan potongan pajak bunga dianggap sebagai penurunan biaya model dengan menggunakan biaya modal rata-rata tertimbang setelah pajak (WACC). Karena WACC dipengaruhi oleh perubahan struktur modal, metode FCF menimbulkan beberapa masalah pelaksanaan dalam transaksi yang sangat terungkit, restrukturisasi, pendanaan proyek, dan kasus-kasus lainnya di mana struktur modal berubah sepanjang waktu. Dalam situasi ini, struktur modal diperkirakan dan perkiraan tersebut harus digunakan untuk menghitung WACC yang tepat pada stiap periode. Dalam keadaan seperti ini, metode FCF dapat digunakan untuk menilai aliran kas dengan benar, tapi metode ini tidak sederhana.
Artikel ini menyajikan sebuah metode alternatif untuk menilai aliran kas yang berisiko. Metode ini saya namakan metode Aliran Kas Modal (CCF), karena aliran kas mencakup semua kas yang tersedia bagi penyedia modal, termasuk pelindung pajak bunga. Dalam struktur modal yang hanya terdiri dari ekuitas umum dan utang biasa, CCF sama dengan aliran yang tersedia bagi ekuitas – NI ditambah depresiasi dikurangi pengleuaran modal dan peningkatan modal kerja – ditambah bunga yang dibayar kepada pemberi pinjaman (debt holder). Pelindung pajak bunga mengurangi pendapatan kena pajak, mengurangi pajak dan, dengan demikian, meningkatkan aliran kas setelah pajak. Dengan kata lain, CCF sama dengan FCF ditambah pelindung pajak bunga. Karena pelindung pajak bunga dimasukkan dalam aliran kas, tingkat potongan yang tepat adalah sebelum pajak dan bersesuaian dengean keberisikoan aset.

Walaupun metode FCF dan CCF memperlakukan pelindung pajak bunga dengan cara yang berbeda, kedua metode ini secara aljabar sama. Dengan kata lain, metode CCF adalah cara lain untuk menilai aliran kas menggunakan asumsi-asumsi dan pendekatan yang sama dengan metode FCF. Kelebihan metode CCF adalah kesederhanaannya. Apabila utang diperkirakan dalam tingkatan, bukan sebagai persentase nilai total perusahaan, metode CCF jauh lebih mudah digunakan, karena pelindung pajak bunga mudah dihitung dan mudah dimasukkan dalam aliran kas. Metode CCF tetap sederhana bila tingkat utang yang diperkirakan dan rasio implisit utang-terhadap-nilai berubah selama periode perkiraan. Selain itu, imbal hasil aset (asset return) yang diperkirakan tergantung pada keberisikoan aset dan, karena itu, tidak berubah bila struktur modal berubah. Karena itu, tingkat potongan untuk CCF tidak perlu diperkirakan kembali setiap periode. Sebaliknya, bila menggunakan metode FCF, WACC setelah pajak harus diperkirakan kembali setiap periode. Karena WACC tergantung pada bobot nilai, nilai perusahaan harus diperkirakan sekaligus. Metode CCF menghindari kerumitan ini sehingga metode ini sangat berguna dalam menilai perusahaan yang sangat terungkit yang hutangnya biasanya diperkirakan dalam tingkatan dan yang struktur modalnya berubah secara signifikan sepanjang waktu.

13 January 2008

Sample Biological Translation - English to Indonesian

English Source Text
Respiratory Systems and Gas Bladder
The basic requirement of a respiratory organ is a surface through which gas exchange between blood and the external water or air can take place by diffusion. The surface must remain moist to let the cells live, must he large enough to permit sufficient gas flow, and must be thin enough to allow adequately rapid diffusion. Since the rate of diffusion also depends on the difference in oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration across the membrane, there is great advantage to perfusing the respiratory organ with blood that is relatively high in carbon dioxide content and low in oxygen. Similarly, there should be a rapid exchange of water or air on the other side of the membrane. The circulatory system controls the flow of blood, and the muscular and skeletal systems control the flow of water or air, often in conjunction with respiratory ducts.
The principal respiratory organs of postembryonic vertebrates are gills and lungs, although the skin and several other structures are sometimes also adapted for respiration. Gas bladders are probably homologous with lungs. Gills and lungs are related only by the serial homology of embryonic primordia; they relate to virtually different systems.
The rather complicated structure of gills and lungs is distinctive at class and sometimes at subclass levels. At lesser taxonomic levels there is considerable variation, some of which is adaptive and some apparently riot. Particular interest and some remaining problems centre on the evolution of respiratory organs during the transition to terrestrial life.

Indonesian Target Text
Sistem Pernapasan dan Kantung Udara
Persyaratan pokok suatu organ pernapasan adalah permukaan di mana pertukaran udara antara darah dan air atau udara dari luar dapat berlangsung melalui difusi. Permukaan tersebut harus tetap lembab agar sel-sel bisa tetap hidup, harus cukup besar untuk memungkinkan aliran udara yang cukup, dan harus cukup tipis untuk memungkinkan difusi yang cukup cepat. Karena kecepatan difusi juga tergantung pada perbedaan konsentrasi oksigen dan karbon dioksida pada membran, perfusi organ pernapasan dengan darah yang mengandung karbon dioksida relatif tinggi dan mengandung oksigen reglatif rendah sangat menguntungkan. Begitu pula, harus terdapat pertukaran air atau udara yang cepat pada sisi membran yang lain. Sistem sirkulasi mengatur aliran darah, dan sistem otot dan rangka mengatur aliran air atau udara, biasanya bersama dengan saluran pernapasan.
Organ pernapasan utama pada vertebrata adalah insang dan paru-paru, walaupun kulit dan beberapa struktur lain kadang-kadang juga mengalami adaptasi untuk pernapasan. Kantung udara mungkin mirip dengan paru-paru. Insang dan paru-paru hanya berkaitan karena homologi serial primordia embrionik; keduanya jelas berkaitan dengan sistem yang berbeda.
Struktur insang dan paru-paru yang relatif kompleks sangat jelas pada level kelas dan kadang-kadang pada level subkelas. Pada level taksonomi yang lebih rendah terdapat banyak variasi, yang sebagian di antaranya bersipat adaptif dan sebagian lagi jelas tidak adaptif. Perhatian khusus dan sejumlah masalah yang tersisa berkisar pada evolusi organ pernapasan selama proses peralihan menuju kehidupan di darat.

Sample Legal Translation

English Source Text
PREMARITAL AGREEMENT
THIS AGREEMENT is made and entered into this ___ day of _____________, 200___ between A, (“A”) and B (“B”) (sometimes referred to as the parties) in contemplation of their marriage. It is to become effective upon their marriage to each other. The purpose of this agreement is to settle the rights and obligations of each of them, during their marriage, upon the death of either or both of them, or in case of dissolution of the marriage.
RECITALS:
A, a citizen of the United States, business man, was born in Greece on . . ., previously divorced, living at . . ., the United States.
B, a citizen of Indonesia, currently unemployed, was born in Indonesia on . . ., living in Indonesia; have entered into this agreement through their mutual discussions.
The parties have previously agreed that, upon their marriage, the United States shall be the domicile of their marriage and they shall maintain their marital residence in the United States.
Both parties, as of this date, are individually possessed of certain separate property; both acknowledge that they played no role in the accumulation of the other's separate property. The parties agree that matters of the classification and disposition of the parties' property and wealth acquired by either party, whether before or during the marriage, shall be determined solely by this Agreement.
Each party understands that the assets of the other may be increased during the marriage by reason of inheritance, gifts, business profits, realized or unrealized appreciation, accumulated income, personal efforts by one or both parties, and other increases or additions, and each acknowledges that he or she is entering into this Agreement regardless of any increases or decreases thereof.
Each party fully understands that, in the absence of this Agreement, the law would confer upon him or her certain marital rights to support and maintenance, as well as certain rights in the property and interests in the assets and property owned, received or acquired by the other presently or in the future; and it is the intent of each party, by this Agreement, to relinquish those rights and interests as specified herein.
This Agreement has been reviewed by each party prior to execution. Each party has had the opportunity to consult with his or her own separate advisors prior to execution of the document. B confirms that she was provided with a certified translation of this Agreement prior to its execution, was able to confirm that the translation accurately details the terms of the English version of this Agreement, and fully understands the nature of this Agreement and the terms it contains.
A and B have each entered into this Agreement freely and voluntarily. No coercion or undue influence has been used by or against either party in making this Agreement.
AGREEMENT:
The parties agree as follows:
1. Separate Property:
(a) The property currently belonging to each party and titled in his or her name shall remain his (her) separate property. All income, dividends, rents or profits from this property shall also remain separate property. All appreciation in value of the separate property, whether attributable to market conditions or the application of the skills or efforts of the owner thereof or any other party, shall be and remain separate property. Any property purchased from the proceeds of the management or sale of such separate property shall also be considered separate property. Any business entity in which he (she) now owns or hereafter owns an interest shall be deemed separate property unless titled in the names of both parties.
(b) Each party shall have the right to sell, rent, use or otherwise manage and control his (her) separate property, with the same effect as if no marriage had occurred between them. The other party hereby ratifies and consents on his or her part to any such management and control. Notwithstanding anything contrary contained herein, each party agrees that, if asked by the other party or by any grantee or donee, he or she will join in any deed, mortgage or other conveyance of such property by the other for the purpose of divesting any such rights, claims, or property interests, whether actual or apparent, or perfecting a clear record title to the property.
(c) Any property coming to either party during the marriage through gift, bequest, or inheritance shall be considered separate property and shall be treated as set forth above.
(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, either party may, by appropriate written instrument, transfer, give, convey, devise or bequeath any property to the other. Neither party intends by this Agreement to limit or restrict the right to receive any such transfer, gift, conveyance, devise, or bequest from the other.
2. Marital Property:
(a) Assets titled in the names of both parties shall be classified as marital property although each party shall retain a separate interest in the separate sums advanced in the purchase of the marital property.
(b) The parties agree that salaried income earned from the gainful employment of either of them (as opposed to passive income or distributions from interests in business entities which are to be deemed separate property) shall be considered marital property. Income used to meet household and other expenses shall be deemed a voluntary contribution to the marriage.
3. Individual Obligations and Liabilities:
(a) All liabilities or obligations of any nature or description, including without limitation, those for torts, punitive damages, penalties, fines or forfeitures, which either party has incurred or hereafter incurs, including the parties' respective shares of liabilities or obligations which have been incurred jointly, either with each other or with third persons, shall be the individual liabilities and obligations of the incurring party as though he or she were an unmarried person. Unless prohibited by law, any such liability or obligation shall be satisfied exclusively out of the incurring party's separate property.
(b) Either party may, at his or her sole option, voluntarily contribute toward the payment of the individual liabilities or obligations of the other. However, such payment shall not constitute an assumption of the individual liabilities by the contributing party, nor shall such payment constitute an admission of liability therefore by the contributing party.
4. Disposition of Property at Death of Spouse:
(a) Each party waives, discharges, and releases all rights, claims or property interests, of whatever nature, which he or she might otherwise have in the event of the death of the other in or to all or any part of the estate of the other under any law now or hereafter in effect in the State of Florida or in any other jurisdiction in which the parties may be domiciled, whether by way of homestead, curtesy, dower, election against the will, spousal allowances, intestate succession, marital property, community property, or otherwise.
(b) Each party agrees that he or she will not, in the event of the death of the other, make or assert any claim or ownership right of any kind whatsoever in or to the individual property, estate or assets of the other, other than for a bona fide debt. In the event that either party dies leaving any property, or estate, or assets to be administered intestate, the same shall be inherited by and distributed to the heirs at law of the decedent (excluding the other party) with the same force and effect as if they had not been married.
(c) Each party shall join in the execution and filing of any instrument or conveyance, and in the taking of any other action necessary to abrogate or otherwise avoid the effect of the law of any jurisdiction conferring any such right or interest, if the legal representative or successor in interest of the other party so requests.
(d) Each party agrees that he (she) will make no claim as beneficiary of any insurance policy upon the life of the other in which he (she) is not named as the beneficiary.
5. Disposition of Property in Event of Divorce:
(a) In the event of a separation or the dissolution of their marriage, the parties acknowledge that this Agreement constitutes a written agreement recognized and enforceable under Florida law. In the event of a separation or the dissolution of the marriage of the parties, each party waives, discharges and releases all rights, claims or property interests, of whatever nature, which he or she might otherwise have in or to all or any part of the individual / separate property of the other under Florida law; and each party agrees that he or she will not, in the event of a separation or dissolution of the marriage of the parties, make or assert any claim or ownership right whatsoever in or to the separate property of the other, other than for a bona fide debt.
(b) Each party agrees that he (she) will make no claim for spousal support (temporary, permanent or lump sum) or maintenance in the event of the parties’ separation or in the event of the dissolution of their marriage.
6. Taxation:
Any refund resulting from joint federal and state declarations and returns shall be shared between the parties in the same proportion as their respective contributions to the tax payments. The parties agree to consult and cooperate in obtaining any refund to which they may be entitled and agree to share the reasonable expenses of obtaining a refund in the same proportion as their respective contributions to the tax payments.

7. Miscellaneous Provisions:
(a) The parties agree that this Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the State of Florida, notwithstanding the establishment of a domicile elsewhere by either or both of the parties at any time subsequent to the execution of this Agreement.
(b) This Agreement shall be amended only by a written agreement signed by both parties. No modification or waiver of any of the terms of this Agreement shall be valid unless in writing and executed with the same formality as this Agreement.
(c) The parties intend this Agreement to set forth their present understanding in its entirety. If any of the provisions of this Agreement shall for any reason become invalid or otherwise cannot be enforced, the remainder of the Agreement shall remain in full force and effect, unless an injustice would thereby result.
(d) Each party represents that he or she understands the meaning of the various provisions of this Agreement, and that the text does set forth the agreement in the manner they had intended. The parties acknowledge that this Agreement is the free and voluntary act of each and that they each believe it to be fair, just, and reasonable.
IN WITNESS, A, and B have signed this Agreement below and have placed their initials in the lower left margin of each page.

Indonesian Target Text
PERJANJIAN PRANIKAH
PERJANIAN INI dibuat dan diadakan pada tanggal _________ 200__ antara A, (“A”) dan B (“B”) (kadang-kadang disebut kedua pihak) sebelum pernikahan mereka. Perjanjian ini akan berlaku setelah mereka menikah. Tujuan perjanjian ini adalah untuk menetapkan hak dan kewajiban masing-masing dari mereka, selama pernikahan mereka, setelah kematian salah satu dari mereka atau mereka berdua, atau apabila terjadi perceraian.
PENDAHULUAN:
A, warga negara Amerika Serikat, pengusaha, lahir di Yunani pada tanggal . . ., sebelumnya sudah bercerai, tinggal di . . ., Amerika Serikat.
B, warga negara Indonesia, sekarang menganggur, lahir di Indonesia pada tanggal . . ., tinggal di Indonesia; telah menyepakati perjanjian ini melalui pembicaraan di antara mereka berdua.
Kedua pihak sebelumnya telah sepakat bahwa, setelah pernikahan mereka, Amerika Serikat akan menjadi tempat tinggal mereka dan mereka akan tetap bertempat tinggal di Amerika Serikat.
Pada hari ini, kedua pihak masing-masing mempunyai harta tertentu yang terpisah; kedua pihak mengakui bahwa mereka tidak berperan dalam pemerolehan harta terpisah pihak lain. Kedua pihak sepakat bahwa masalah klasifikasi dan pembagian harta dan kekayaan kedua pihak yang diperoleh oleh masing-masing pihak, baik sebelum ataupun selama pernikahan, akan diatur hanya oleh Perjanjian ini.
Masing-masing pihak memahami bahwa harta pihak lain bisa bertambah selama pernikahan karena warisan, hadiah, keuntungan usaha, pertambahan nilai yang terwujud dan yang tidak terwujud, pendapatan yang terkumpul, usaha pribadi oleh salah satu atau kedua pihak, dan peningkatan atau pertambahan lain, dan masing-masing mengakui bahwa ia menyepakati Perjanjian ini tanpa mempedulikan pertambahan atau pengurangan harta tersebut.
Masing-masing pihak memahami sepenuhnya bahwa, dengan tiadanya Perjanjian ini, hukum akan memberikan hak-hak perkawinan tertentu kepadanya untuk memperoleh bantuan keuangan dan tunjangan, serta hak-hak tertentu atas harta dan bunga dari kekayaan dan harta yang dimiliki, diperoleh atau didapatkan oleh pihak lain di masa kini atau di masa yang akan datang; dengan Perjanjian ini masing-masing pihak bermaksud menyerahkan hak dan bunga seperti yang disebutkan di sini.
Perjanjian ini telah dipertimbangkan oleh masing-masing pihak sebelum ditandatangani. Masing-masing pihak telah mendapatkan kesempatan untuk berkonsultasi dengan penasehat hukum masing-masing sebelum penandatanganan dokumen ini. B menegaskan bahwa ia diberi terjemahan yang sah dari Perjanjian ini sebelum ditandatangani, dapat menegaskan bahwa terjemahan tersebut menguraikan dengan tepat ketentuan-ketentuan dalam versi bahasa Inggeris dari Perjanjian tersebut, dan benar-benar memahami seluk-beluk dari Perjanjian ini dan ketentuan-ketentuan yang ada di dalamnya.
A dan B masing-masing telah sepakat untuk membuat Perjanjian ini dengan sukarela dan tanpa paksaan. Tidak ada kekerasan atau pengaruh yang tidak wajar yang telah digunakan oleh masing-masing pihak atau untuk melawan pihak lain dalam membuat Perjanjian ini.
PERJANJIAN:
Kedua pihak mencapai kesepakatan sebagai berikut:
1. Harta Terpisah
(a) Harta yang sekarang dimiliki masing-masing pihak dan dinyatakan atas namanya akan tetap menjadi harta terpisah miliknya. Semua pendapatan, dividen, sewa atau keuntungan dari harta ini juga akan tetap menjadi harta yang terpisah. Semua pertambahan nilai dari harta yang terpisah, baik karena keadaan pasar atau penggunaan keterampilan atau usaha pemiliknya atau pihak lain, akan menjadi dan tetap sebagai harta yang terpisah. Semua harta yang dibeli dari hasil pengelolaan atau penjualan harta yang terpisah ini juga akan dianggap sebagai harta yang terpisah. Semua unit usaha di mana ia sekarang memilikinya atau dengan demikian mendapatkan bunga akan dianggap harta terpisah kecuali bila dinyatakan atas nama kedua pihak.
(b) Masing-masing pihak akan berhak menjual, menyewakan, menggunakan atau mengelola dan mengatur hartanya yang terpisah, seolah-olah tidak terjadi pernikahan di antara mereka. Dengan ini pihak lain menyetujui dan mengesahkan perannya dalam pengelolaan dan pengaturan ini. Meskipun sesuatu yang bertentangan terdapat di dalam dokumen ini, masing-masing pihak sepakat bahwa bila diminta oleh pihak lain atau oleh penerima, ia akan ikut serta dalam pemindahan hak, penggadaian atau segala bentuk pemindahan hak atas harta ini oleh pihak lain dengan tujuan melepaskan hak, tuntutan, atau bunga atas harta, baik yang pasti ataupun tidak pasti, atau menyempurnakan hak yang jelas atas harta tersebut.
(c) Semua harta yang diperoleh masing-masing pihak selama pernikahan berupa hadiah, warisan, atau harta peninggalan akan dianggap harta yang terpisah dan akan diperlakukan sebagaimana ketentuan di atas.
(d) Meskipun terdapat ketentuan lain dalam Perjanjian ini, dengan dokumen tertulis yang sesuai masing-masing pihak dapat memindahkan, memberi-kan, mengalihkan, mewasiatkan atau mewariskan harta kepada pihak lain. Dengan Perjanjian ini masing-masing pihak tidak bermaksud membatasi hak untuk menerima pemindahan, pemberian, pengalihan, wasiat, atau warisan dari pihak lain.
2. Harta Bersama
(a) Kekayaan yang dinyatakan atas nama kedua pihak akan diklasifikasikan sebagai harta bersama walaupun masing-masing pihak akan tetap mendapatkan bunga yang terpisah dengan jumlah yang terpisah yang diperoleh dari pembelian harta bersama.
(b) Kedua pihak sepakat bahwa pendapatan tetap yang diperoleh dari pekerjaan yang menguntungkan dari masing-masing pihak (yang berbeda dengan pendapatan tidak tetap atau pembagian atas bunga dari unit usaha yang dianggap sebagai harta terpisah) akan dianggap harta bersama. Pendapatan yang digunakan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan rumah tangga dan kebutuhan lainnya akan dianggap sebagai sumbangan suka rela untuk kepentingan bersama.
3. Kewajiban dan Tanggung Jawab Perorangan
(a) Semua tanggung jawab atau kewajiban dengan segala sipat atau keterangan, termasuk tanpa pembatasan, yang diakibatkan oleh kesalahan, kerugian akibat hukuman, hukuman, denda atau tebusan, yang telah atau sedang dilaksanakan oleh masing-masing pihak, termasuk bagian tanggung jawab atau kewajiban masing-masing dari kedua pihak yang telah dilaksanakan bersama, baik di antara mereka berdua ataupun dengan pihak ketiga, akan menjadi tanggung jawab dan kewajiban perorangan dari pihak yang melaksanakannya seolah-olah dia adalah orang yang belum menikah. Kecuali bila dilarang oleh hukum, semua tanggung jawab atau kewajiban ini akan dipenuhi sepenuhnya dari harta terpisah pihak yang melaksanakan tanggung jawab atau kewajiban tersebut.
(b) Atas kemauannya sendiri, masing-masing pihak bisa secara sukarela membantu pembayaran tanggung jawab atau kewajiban perorangan pihak lain. Namun demikian, pembayaran ini bukan merupakan penerimaan tanggung jawab perorangan tersebut oleh pihak yang membantu, dan dengan demikian pembayaran ini juga bukan merupakan pengakuan tanggung jawab oleh pihak yang membantu.
4. Pembagian Harta atas Kematian Suami atau Isteri
(a) Masing-masing pihak melepaskan semua hak, tuntutan, ataupun bunga atas harta, dalam bentuk apapun, yang mungkin dimilikinya bila terjadi kematian pihak lain atas atau atas semua atau sebagian dari harta pihak lain menurut hukum apapun yang berlaku sekarang ataupun nanti di Negara Bagian Florida atau di wilayah hukum lain di mana kedua pihak mungkin bertempat tinggal, apakah berupa hak atas rumah dan pekarangannya, hak suami untuk mendapatkan bunga atas harta tak bergerak setelah kematian isterinya, hak isteri untuk mendapatkan bunga atas harta tak bergerak setelah kematian suaminya, hak untuk menentukan besarnya bagian warisan dari harta tak bergerak suami atau isteri yang telah meninggal, tunjangan suami atau isteri, hak pengalihan kepemilikan harta tak bergerak karena tiadanya wasiat suami atau isteri yang telah meninggal, hak atas harta yang diperoleh selama pernikahan, hak atas harta bersama, atau sebaliknya.
(b) Apabila terjadi kematian pihak lain, masing-masing pihak menyepakati bahwa ia tidak akan mengajukan tuntutan ataupun hak kepemilikan dalam bentuk apapun atas harta perorangan, harta tak bergerak ataupun kekayaan pihak lain, selain karena hutang yang dapat dipercaya. Apabila salah satu pihak meninggal dan meninggalkan harta, atau harta tak bergerak, atau kekayaan tanpa wasiat, harta tersebut akan diwariskan oleh dan dibagikan kepada pewaris orang yang meninggal (tidak termasuk pihak lain) dengan kekuatan dan ketentuan hukum yang sama seolah-olah mereka tidak pernah menikah.
(c) Masing-masing pihak akan ikut serta dalam penandatanganan dan pengajuan segala dokumen atau pengalihan hak, dan dalam pengambilan segala tindakan lain yang diperlukan untuk membatalkan ataupun menghindari ketentuan hukum di suatu wilayah hukum yang memberikan hak atau bunga ini, bila penasehat hukum yang mewakili pihak lain memintanya.
(d) Masing-masing pihak menyepakati bahwa ia tidak akan mengajukan tuntutan sebagai pewaris polis asuransi setelah meninggalnya pihak lain di mana ia tidak disebutkan sebagai pewarisnya.
5. Pembagian Harta Apabila Terjadi Perceraian
(a) Apabila terjadi perpisahan atau perceraian, kedua pihak mengakui bahwa Perjanjian ini merupakan perjanjian tertulis yang diakui dan berlaku menurut hukum Florida. Apabila terjadi perpisahan atau perceraian kedua pihak tersebut, masing-masing pihak melepaskan semua hak, tuntutan, atau bunga atas harta, dalam bentuk apapun, yang mungkin dimilikinya atas atau atas semua atau sebagian dari harta perorangan/terpisah pihak lain menurut hukum Florida; dan masing-masing pihak menyepakati bahwa, apabila terjadi perpisahan atau perceraian kedua pihak tersebut, ia tidak akan mengajukan tuntutan ataupun hak kepemilikan dalam bentuk apapun atas harta terpisah pihak lain, selain karena hutang yang dapat dipercaya.
(b) Masing-masing pihak menyepakati bahwa ia tidak akan mengajukan tuntutan untuk mendapatkan bantuan keuangan bagi suami atau isteri (baik sementara, tetap, atau sekali bayar) atau tunjangan suami atau isteri apabila terjadi perpisahan kedua pihak atau apabila terjadi perceraian kedua pihak.
6. Pajak
Semua pembayaran kembali yang diperoleh dari pernyataan dan pengembalian bersama pemerintah federal dan negara bagian akan dibagi di antara kedua pihak dengan jumlah yang sama dengan sumbangan mereka masing-masing atas pembayaran pajak. Kedua pihak sepakat untuk berkonsultasi dan bekerjasama dalam mendapatkan pembayaran kembali yang mungkin menjadi hak mereka dan sepakat untuk menanggung bersama pengeluaran yang diperlukan untuk mendapatkan pembayaran kembali dengan jumlah yang sama dengan sumbangan mereka masing-masing atas pembayaran pajak.
7. Ketentuan Lain
(a) Kedua pihak menyepakati bahwa Perjanjian ini akan diatur oleh hukum Negara Bagian Florida, meskipun terjadi penetapan tempat tinggal di daerah lain oleh salah satu atau kedua pihak di kemudian hari setelah penandatanganan Perjanjian ini.
(b) Perjanjian ini akan diubah hanya dengan perjanjian tertulis yang ditandatangani oleh kedua pihak. Tidak ada perubahan ataupun pengecualian yang sah atas segala ketentuan dalam Perjanjian ini kecuali bila dibuat secara tertulis dan ditandatangani secara resmi seperti Perjanjian ini.
(c) Kedua pihak sepenuhnya memahami seluruh isi dari Perjanjian ini. Bila salah satu ketentuan dalam Perjanjian ini karena alasan tertentu menjadi tidak sah atau tidak dapat dilaksanakan, ketentuan lainnya dalam Perjanjian ini akan tetap berlaku sepenuhnya, kecuali bila dengan ini terjadi ketidakadilan.
(d) Masing-masing pihak menyatakan bahwa ia memahami arti dari berbagai ketentuan dalam Perjanjian ini, dan bahwa dokumen ini merupakan perjanjian sebagaimana yang dimaksudkan. Kedua pihak mengakui bahwa Perjanjian ini dibuat secara sukarela dan tanpa paksaan dan bahwa mereka masing-masing meyakini bahwa Perjanjian ini adil, jujur, dan masuk akal.
DALAM KESAKSIAN MENGENAI HAL ITU, A dan B telah menandatangani Perjanjian ini dan telah memberikan inisial mereka di sisi kiri bawah setiap halaman.

12 January 2008

Sample General Translation

English Source Text
Is Democracy Losing Its Romance?
Back in the 1980s, when hawks were hawks and doves were doves, it used to be said that democracies don’t fight each other. When doves argued for “peace” in, say, Central America, the hawks answered that the best assurance of peace in any region was the establishment of democracy, even by violent means if necessary. Once established, democratically elected governments will never choose to spend the people’s blood and treasure making war against their democratically elected neighbors.
It’s a nice thought. Unfortunately, it’s been disproved in Yugoslavia, where the fall of communism has brought a vicious three-way war. Serbia and Croatia, both under democratically elected Presidents, intermittently fight each other while jointly dismembering democratic Bosnia. Serbia had a parliamentary election December 19 in which all the parties supported Serbia’s aggression – although it has left the country a basket case. The Yugoslav mess is one reason some former hawks have become born-again doves. They have lost their interest in promoting democracy. They look at the post-communist world and see that the common cause of war is nationalist hatred – which democracy, far from suppressing, actually gives vent to.

Indonesian Target Text
Apakah Demokrasi Mulai Kehilangan Pesonanya?
Kembali pada tahun 1980-an, ketika pendukung kekerasan adalah pendukung kekerasan dan pendukung perdamaian adalah pendukung perdamaian, sering dikatakan bahwa negara demokrasi tidak saling menyerang. Misalnya, ketika pendukung perdamaian menuntut 'perdamaian' di Amerika Tengah, pendukung kekerasan menjawab bahwa jaminan perdamaian yang paling baik di setiap kawasan adalah pembentukan negara demokrasi, bahkan bila perlu dengan jalan kekerasan. Bila sudah terbentuk, pemerintah yang terpilih secara demokratis tidak akan pernah berpikir untuk menggunakan darah dan harta rakyatnya untuk berperang melawan pemerintah tetangganya yang dipilih secara demokratis.
Ini pemikiran yang bagus. Sayangnya, pemikiran ini tidak terbukti di Yugoslavia, di mana jatuhnya komunisme telah menimbulkan perang tiga-pihak yang kejam. Serbia dan Kroasia, keduanya di bawah pimpinan Presiden yang terpilih secara demokratis, tiap sebentar saling menyerang dan pada saat yang sama keduanya memecah belah Bosnia yang demokratis. Serbia mengadakan pemilihan anggota parlemen pada tanggal 19 Desember di mana semua partai mendukung agresi Serbia walaupun agresi tersebut telah membuat negara tersebut menghadapi banyak permasalahan. Perang Yugoslavia menjadi salah satu penyebab sebagian pendukung kekerasan menjadi pendukung perdamaian yang terlahir kembali. Mereka telah kehilangan minatnya untuk mengembangkan demokrasi. Mereka melihat dunia pasca-komunis dan menyimpulkan bahwa penyebab utama peperangan adalah kebencian nasionalis yang bukannya dihambat tapi malah diberi peluang hidup oleh demokrasi.

Sample Medical Translation

English Source Text
To identify factors that influence the clinical response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), we studied the correlation between in vitro sensitivity to 5-FU and the expression of seven biological markers. The markers, thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase, p53 (wild/mutant), p21, cyclo-oxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were measured in tumour tissues from 32 colorectalcancer patients. The activities of TS and DPD were significantly lower in the tumours sensitive to 5-FU compared with those that were not sensitive to 5-FU. In tumours with TS <>

Untuk mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi respons klinis terhadap 5-florourasil (5-FU), kami meneliti korelasi antara sensitifitas in vitro terhadap 5-FU dan kadar tujuh indikator biologis. Indikator tersebut, yaitu timidilat sintasa (TS), dihidropirimidin dehidrogenasa (DPD), pirimidin nukleosida fosforilasa, p53 (liar/mutan), p21, siklo-oksigenasa-2, dan sintasa oksida nitrat induktif diukur pada jaringan tumor dari 32 pasien penderita kanker kolorektum. Aktifitas TS dan DPD jauh lebih rendah pada tumor yang peka terhadap 5-FU dibandingkan dengan tumor yang tidak peka terhadap 5-FU. Pada tumor dengan TS <>

11 January 2008

Translator as a Native Speaker of the Target Language

Translators associations and translation agencies generally require that a translator must be a native speaker of the target language. Thus, the golden rule reads 'a translator should only translate into his or her native language.'

This rule may be based on the assumption that a native speaker has better language mastery than a non-native speaker. Therefore, a translation produced by a native speaker will be better than that produced by a non-native speaker.

It seems that the rule is still valid these days. I support and agree with the rule. But how can an agency identify that a translator is a native speaker of the target language? The task must be simple for a translator like me, who speaks Indonesian as my native language and speaks English as my foreign language, who was born in Indonesia to an Indonesian father and an Indonesian mother, who has never lived in an English speaking country.

What is the native language of a translator who was born in Indonesia to an Indian father and a Malay mother, who attends Indonesian-speaking schools since elementary to secondary schools, and after leaving the secondary school he/she lives in Australia?

Of course, the definition of native language is quite clear. Some linguists define it as primary or first language spoken by an individual. Some other linguists define it as the first language a person learns and usually is known as a person's mother tongue. Some others just call it the language of the home. Still some others consider it as the preferred language or language the person is most fluent. Finally, other linguists define it as the language that a person has spoken from earliest childhood.

All these definitions are theoretical and conceptual in nature. Apart from the translator's declarative claim that he/she is a native speaker of a certain language, how can an agency identify and conclude for sure that the translator is a native speaker of the language?

08 January 2008

My Translation Services

English-Indonesian Legal Translator

Broad and Deep Legal Translation Experience

Strong Understanding of Legal Terms

Introduction
I started translating in early 1990 after dropping out of the electrical engineering department of Padang Institute of Teacher Training and Education (IKIP Padang) halfway through my study for severe conditions of self-financed study. Nine years later, I went to the English department of Universitas Bung Hatta of Padang, West Sumatra, and graduated summa cum laude (with GPA of 3.95 on a 4.00 scale) in 2004. Since 2007 I have been doing my BA in law at Universitas Ekasakti of Padang, West Sumatra.

With more than twenty years of experience as a full-time freelance translator and local clients who are mostly undergraduate and postgraduate students majoring in various disciplines, I have been extensively and intensively exposed to numerous texts of various disciplines too.

Nevertheless, to have comprehensive understanding and complete mastery of the subject matter, I specialize in legal, medical, business, and financial translation. My knowledge of and skills in medical translation are derived from long experience of translating book chapters and research journal articles for local undergraduate and postgraduate students majoring in medicine.

Now, having had long experience in translating a myriad of legal, business, and financial documents, I am doing an SH (equivalent to LL.B.) to widen and deepen my knowledge of law and business/finance. This major was chosen based on the fact that studying law involves business and finance (business law, civil law, business organizations, contracts, bankruptcy, labour law, trade and investment, securities, capital market, etc.), while studying business/finance does not involve law. Thus, I kill two birds with one stone.

Clientele
My clientele comprise three categories - local, national, and international. Local clients refer to those residing in the provincial territory of West Sumatra; national clients are those in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia but beyond the provincial territory of West Sumatra; international clientele are those beyond the territory of the Republic of Indonesia but, of course, still on this planet Earth.:)

The vast majority of my local clients are post-graduate students majoring in various disciplines. My local jobs are usually book chapters and research journal articles each consisting of around 8,000 source words.

Unlike local clients, who are generally individual direct clients, my national clients are mostly domestic and foreign organizational direct clients. The clients, among others, are from Ambon (Maluku), Denpasar (Bali), Jakarta, Lampung, Medan (North Sumatra), Pontianak (West Kalimantan), and Semarang (Central Java).

My international clients are mostly translation agencies and direct clients in Australia, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Latvia, Malaysia, Poland, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, and the United States (see Project History & Willingness to Work Again above).

Pricing Policy
As a corollary of this geographical classification of clients, my translation rates are also divided into three categories - local, national, and international.

My international rates are further classified into regional rates.

The standard rates displayed above are applicable to West European, Japanese, North American, and Australian clients.

The rates for clients in East Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific, and South America are lower than those rates.

Tentu saja, tarif dolar di atas khusus untuk klien internasional. Untuk klien lokal dan nasional tarifnya pasti dalam rupiah yang sangat jauh lebih murah dibandingkan dengan tarif di atas.

Karena itu, bila Anda membutuhkan jasa penerjemahan online lokal dan nasional, silakan kunjungi Penerjemah Onlen Inggris-Indonesia untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai tarif jasa penerjemahan lokal dan nasional saya dan cara pemesanan serta prosedur pelayanan.

Di blog ini juga disajikan informasi penting lainnya mengenai kualifikasi dan pengalaman menerjemah, contoh terjemahan, serta gagasan dan pengalaman saya sebagai penerjemah.

Contoh terjemahan dokumen umum dalam volume besar dapat dilihat di blog ini.

Untuk melihat beragam contoh terjemahan agrobisnis, silakan berkunjung ke blog saya Peternakan Firstanipo.

Average Translation Speed
To ensure high quality and accurate translations, the average translation speeds are set as follows:

English to Indonesian:
2500 source words (+/-13 pages of 200 source words per page) per day (10 hours)

Indonesian to English:
1500 source words (+/-8 pages of 200 source words per page) per day (10 hours)

Minimum Orders
Translation: A translation order whose volume is less than 300 source words will be charged US$40 in total.

Editing/Proofreading An editing/proofreading order whose volume is less than 1000 words will be charged US$40 in total.

No Surcharge for Weekend Jobs
As a full-time freelance translator who works and is online seven days a week, there is no weekend to me. Thus, there is no extra fee added to my normal rates for weekend translation jobs.

How to Order
Please email me by clicking the envelope icon on top of this profile for total cost estimation and completion time prediction.

Any incoming emails related to translation, editing, and proofreading jobs will be responded to immediately.

Quality Assurance Procedure
To assure the highest quality of translation, I apply the following procedure to every translation job:
1. Consecutive Translation - Editing
2. Proofreading
3. Delivery

Work Initiation
I will start to work on the translation job following final agreement in terms of rate, deadline, and methods/terms of payment.

Methods of Payment
1. International Clients
a. Moneybookers (real time and cheap)
b. PayPal (real time but rather expensive)
c. Western Union (real time)
d. Bank/Wire Transfer (takes about 3 to 5 working days)

2. National Clients
a. Bank Transfer
Addressed to my account at Bank Mandiri. My bank details are available at your request. Please note that to ensure the greatest convenience in terms of transfer cost and processing speed, you had better use the same bank (Bank Mandiri or Bank BCA).

3. Local Clients
a. Cash payment in person

Terms of Payment
International Clients
1. Translation Agencies
a. Payment shall be made within 30 days since the date of invoicing.
b. Any charges associated with the payment shall be incurred by the payer.
c. The payee shall receive the money in full as stated on the invoice.
d. The payer shall make payment on time regardless of the end client's payment.

2. Organizational Direct Clients:
a. Payment shall be made within 10 days since the date of invoicing.
b. Any charges associated with the payment shall be incurred by the payer.
c. The payee shall receive the money in full as stated on the invoice.

3. Individual Direct Clients:
a. Payment shall be made up-front or well before delivery of the translation.
b. Any charges associated with the payment shall be incurred by the payer.
c. The payee shall receive the money in full as stated on the invoice.

National Clients
1. Translation Agencies
a. Payment shall be made up-front or well before delivery of the translation.
b. Any charges associated with the payment shall be incurred by the payer.
c. The payee shall receive the money in full as stated on the invoice.

2. Organizational Direct Clients:
a. For new and one-off organizational direct clients, payment shall be made up-front or well before delivery of the translation.
b. Any charges associated with the payment shall be incurred by the payer.
c. The payee shall receive the money in full as stated on the invoice.

3. Individual Direct Clients:
a. Payment shall be made up-front or well before delivery of the translation.
b. Any charges associated with the payment shall be incurred by the payer.
c. The payee shall receive the money in full as stated on the invoice.

Availability
Seven days a week at 9:00 am until 9:00 pm (sometimes later) West Indonesian Time (GMT +7)

Instant Messages
To send me instant messages, contact my Yahoo!Messenger ID: hipyannopri

Internet Access
High Speed/Broadband Access, standby from 9:00 am until 9:00 pm (sometimes later) West Indonesian Time (GMT +7)